What Is Leadership And The Leadership Styles Management Essay Introduction: Definition: 1. Leadership is stated as the process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task. Chemers, M. M. (2002). 2.Leadership is ultimately about creating a way for people to contribute to making something extraordinary happen Kouzes, J., and Posner, B. (2007). 3. Leadership is a function of knowing yourself, having a vision that is well communicated, building trust among colleagues, and taking effective action to realize your own leadership potential.(Warren Bennis) 4. Leadership is the process through which an individual tries to influence another individual or a group of individuals to accomplish a goal. (Blake, R.; Mouton, J. (1964) What is leadership? Leaders always have an impact on our lives. The leader affects us in our daily life and in our future too. Whether it good time or bad time. Theres always a need of a good leadership. The success of the business or industry depends upon the leader which you have chosen for the task and what leadership style he or she adopts. Leadership is in which you lead the whole group of peoples whether in business industries or sports. The contribution of the leadership should be effective in all the situations. In leadership a person who is leader should always have vision about the future he should forecast and should know the upcoming conditions and situation in the market or industry. For affective leadership the leader should have good skills in communication and convincing other people and also should have humility when he is treating people. The theory of leadership say leader always has great ideas but most of time ideas come from someone else. So leader should always have people around him who can generate ideas. For good leadership leader should have qualities such as good communication, well planner, decision making, flexible, intelligent, handworker, good company, friendly, sense of humor, good looks, punctual, management skills, leadership qualities, vision and Listening qualities. Leadership style: There are four leadership style, 1.Autocratic leadership 2.Persuasive leadership 3.Consultative leadership 4.Democratic leadership ( Kurt lewin. 1939) Autocratic leadership: Autocratic leadership style is one of the most oldest leadership style. This autocratic style has been seen in classical era when the industrialist use to take decision on their own. Autocratic leadership has following characteristics. In autocratic leadership the owner or the manager tries to make as many decisions as he can. He or she does not consult with anyone. In autocratic leadership the owner seem to have the most authority and he has full control on the decision making. When owner is making decision he or she does not care whether this will be acceptable by the other or not. Usually in this style owner want to have all authority with him he does not want to distribute the authority to different people. In this leadership style consultation with the member or colleagues is very low and decision making become a solitary process. In this style the main defect is that all the managers have less concern in investing their own idea. They just prefer to work on task which is assign to them. This trend of leadership style is used in traditional organization. Persuasive leadership: Persuasive leadership style is in which before making any decision the owner or the manager call a meeting in which everyone is setting. The point is raised in the meeting everyone participates in the decision making. After the decisions which are made is implemented. The positive thing of this leadership style is that everyone gives its ideas lots of ideas are generated. Everyone interest is developed in the decision which is going on. This tread of leadership style is used in the modern organization. Where fast decision have to be made like Symantec Corporation, Microsoft, software house, IT field organizations. Consultative leadership: Consultative leadership style is that the leader shares the problem with his team members or the subordinates but not in meeting or gathering. The leader shares the problem individually. Leader sends the problem to each member and takes individual decision, suggestions and ideas from them. After getting the decision from everyone the manager work on it and makes the decision out of it. Which reflect team member participation. This leadership style is good but may be sometime it could not work accordingly because in the manager is the only one who is making all the decision. Democratic leadership: Democratic mean characterized by or advocating or based upon the principles of democracy or social equality (George du Maurier) Democratic leadership style is one of the best leadership styles because in it the leader is not involved. This leadership style works like if there is some problem the leader will share the problem with the subordinates or members as group. After that leader doesnt involve in it. The group member sit together they make discussions and they try to generate alternatives after those generating alternatives they evaluate the alternatives and try to reach the agreement or solution. The leader does not participate in all the process and he is ready to accept solution which the group has made and he implement any solution that has support of all the group. Leadership skill ,traits and attributes: SKILLS: 1.Understand the needs and characteristics of the post 2.Knowing and using the resource of group 3.Controlling the group performance 4.Evaluating 5.Representing the group 6.Communication 7.Planning 8.Setting example 9.Counseling 10.Effective teaching. Understand the needs and characteristics of the post: Each participant or individual have needs so as a leader he or she should understand wants of every person. Before that leader should know what are his or her needs. Leader should know what people want from him. This helps the leader in planning the work and making it done from the employees. This understanding creates trust and built a strong relationship between the employees. Leader should know why he is joining the post. What really post demand from him or her. What are the major interests of the job and what are the future plans which he or she has to implement. Knowing and using the resource of the group: Resources is all that which are required to do a job. Resources also include people because people have knowledge and skill. Knowledge is what a person learns from path experience and skill is the ability to do what you want. Leader usually uses the knowledge and skills of the group to get the job done. Leader usually develop positive attitude towards skills. Leader should know what person is good for what job. In what skill he is best so he should be given that job in which his skill can be most used. Controlling the group performance: A leader increase the performance of the group and employees participants through his or her actions. A leader is an engine and employees are like boxes which are following them. Group best work when everyone has on direction and they want to achieve one thing. Controlling is a function which is performed by leader to see whether the group is working in right direction or not. Through controlling leader keep watch on the group. Setting example is the best way to control the group. Group can be controlled through following ways 1.Continually keeping an eye on the activities of the employees. 2. Knowing the attitude of the group 3.Giving instruction clear and pertinent 4.Help someone who is in need of it. 5. Quickly deal with the problem Evaluating: Evaluation helps to know the performance of the group and people working together. Evaluation suggests in which way we can improvement of the group performance. There are question to evaluate for getting the job done. What was the job? Was the job done right? Was the job done on time? Keeping the group together- Were relationships between group participants helped or hurt? Was participation equally distributed among group Participants? Did the group enjoy the activity? Did the group handle conflicts well? Representing the group: Leader of the group represents the group in meeting or any other gathering. Leader represents his group in two ways without consultation and with consultation without consultation: without consultation mean that leader does not consult the decision with the group. He represents the group without their ideas with consultation: when the leader represents the group with consulting with the group. He represents the decision which is made by the group. Communication: Leader should have good communication skills because he has to communicate with his subordinates and he or she also has to answer people working over him. Communication is very important because without communication leader cannot convey his message. To improve the communication skill the leader should always listen carefully to the subordinates and make notes of everything. Always be sure before speaking. Speak slow and clearly. Planning: Leader should have planning abilities. To improve the abilities leader should know what the objectives are and how he or she has to achieve it. Should know all the skills, equipments, knowledge and attitude. Should consider the alternative and then should evaluate the each option. After that execute and in the last evaluate the plan. Setting example: Leader should be setting example. He or she should do work in front of the employees so that they can learn from it. Counseling: Counseling is very important it help people to solve the problems counseling also help to encourage people. Counseling can be effective when person cannot make decision and when he is confused. Effective teaching: effective teaching is a process of increasing the knowledge and skills. Effective teaching includes choosing the learning objectives. Demonstrating or explaining the skills. Allowing the learner to practice the skills and evaluating the process. Traits: A leader should be honest with his work and his subordinates. Should be competent for the job. Always have forward looking. Should be intelligent. Leader should always be fair minded and also broad minded. Leader should be straight forward and leader should have vision so he can lead the employees with him. Attributes: Attributes establish what leaders are and every leader needs three attributes. 1. Standard barrier 2.Developer 3.Integrator 4. Understands people Standard barrier: Is establishing the ethical frame work within an organization. This demand a commitment to live and defend the climate and culture that you want to permeate your organization (U.S. Army Handbook (1973). Developer: It helps through teaching, training and coaching. This creates a good place to learn and work. Coaching helps other to learn or understand the skill. Employees who work for developers know that they can take risks. Integrators: Success can only be achieved when everyone is working in right direction. Integrators predict problems which will occur and make their presence felt during critical times. Understands people : Leader should understand people which are working under it. Leader should involve employees for the decision making. If leader understand and work with them they can easily achieve organization goals. Impact of leadership according to skills and traits for success: Leader are not made over night. It takes time to develop skills to become a successful leader. If a leader has good skills he can have successful leadership. The impact of the skills for the success of the leader is if a leader understands the needs and characteristics of the post he can understand his work more properly. If the leader of the group understands the work properly he can guide his subordinates well and further subordinates can teach lower employees. Leader should know the needs of the post. Because if a leader does not have information about the job. He cannot take all employees with himself. There will be no clear goal for the employees. Due to this skill he can know what he has to give to employees and what he wants in return from them. If a leader has skill of knowing and using the resource of group he can easily take work form people. Through this skill leader can know what the group is capable of. So if he or she wants to take work out of them he or she knows up to what level they can do. Controlling group performance skill is also very important skill. If this skill of the leader is good he can maintain the group performance. He will boost or motivate that person who is not working well so that he work up to the standard of the group and all group work together and give 100% out of it to achieve goal. If a leader has evaluating skill he can easily evaluate what is the working performance of the group. He can also evaluate the individual performance of the employee. In evaluation skill the leader can see what was the job how it been done. How much time it took to complete the job? So through this skill leader can finish his work and group work on time. If a leader has presenting skills he can present himself in a good way to the group and can represent group in a good way. Good communication is the most important skill needed by the leader because a leader has to communication with everyone. If a leader has a good communication skill he can understand employees very well I can know the need of the employees and he can give direction easily. Planning is also a important skill for the leader because through planning leader can know what new step he has to take. Through planning he can forecast what will be the upcoming environment of the organizational section. Planning can really help the leader. Leader who has counseling skill will never get short of idea because through counseling he will get different idea from different people and those idea will help the leader to make new decision. If leader is honest everyone will trust him and he will have respect in his colleagues. If leader is hard working and competent then can easily gain success over his competitors. If leader is forward looking he can easily predict about the upcoming future. So he can think according to it. If leader is intelligent and has vision he can easily take his organization to next level. Leadership theories: There are four leadership theories: 1.Trait theory 2.Behaviour theory 3.Contingent theory 4.Transformation theory Trait theory: In early day people use to think that people are born with inherited traits and some are suitable for leadership and people who become good leader have right combination of traits. In 1974 stogdill identified the following traits and skills as critical to leaders. Adaptable to situations Alert to social environment Ambitious and achievement-orientated Assertive Cooperative Decisive Dependable Dominant Energetic Persistent Self-confident Tolerant of stress Willing to assume responsibility Skills Fluent in speaking Knowledgeable about group task Persuasive Socially skill Behavior theory: They assumption of the behavior theory is that leader can be made rather than born. Behavioral theories of leadership say that leaders are not born by birth. Behavior theory doesnt seek inborn traits and capabilities. Behavior theory says that you can learn leadership capabilities rather adopting them. Contingent theory: They assumption of contingent theory is there is no one best way to lead in the situations. There may be one style successful in one situation but May not work in the other. This theory tends to focus on more leadership style for success. This theory says that leader should act according to situation and should adopt different leadership style for success. Transformation theory: Transformation theory assumptions are that people follow that person who inspires them. Person with vision or passion can achieve great things. The style of transformational leader is great because it put passion and energy in everything. They care about you and want you to succeed in life. Transformation theory is that a leader develops a vision and then sells the vision by telling people what they have to achieve by motivating them. Then he or she find way forward mean he know how to lead. After that he remains centre of action. In transformation theory leader motivates people to achieve the goal. Leadership style you like: The leadership style which I like is transformation leadership because everything just revolve around you. You are the center of everything. You are the person who gives innovative idea to the people or vision then you know the way how you have to achieve this goal. After that you take the charge and you put energy in people which are working with you. You motivate them and you put this idea in their mind that success will be in the end. You take each and every person with you. This is why I like transformation leadership because you are the active member. Stages of group development: There are five stages of development: 1. Forming 2. Storming 3.Norming 4.Performing forming: Forming is where group is formed to achieve a task or to solve a problem. In this members have desire to be in the group. Member gets oriented to the task as well as to one other. Basically in forming group of people is gathering to achieve or discuss a goal. Storming: In this group member attempt to organize for the task. Individual have to mold their feeling and attitude for organization objective. In storming question are raised that who will be responsible for which thing. What will be the rules? What will be the reward system? There might be conflicts over leadership, structure and power. To move to next stage member should develop problem solving mentality. Norming: In norming group member share their idea so that they can reach to some decision. Everyone in willing to change their idea on fact and figure presented my other group members. During this stage member develop a scene of group. They try to understand other point of view. performing: In performing the group members works collaboratively and member care for everyone in the group. The group establishes a unique identity and members are interdependent. I performing member find solution to problem using appropriate control and they try to find effective and satisfactory results. Belbins team role theory: 1.Co-ordinator 2.Sharper 3.plant 4.Resource investigator 5.Company worker 6.Monitor / evaluator 7.Team worker 8.Completer finisher. 9Specialist. Coordinator: A coordinator is a person who is leader in the group. This person is trusted, accepted and is committed to team goals and objectives. Coordinator is a person who listen everyone . Sharper: Shaper is person who motivates the team member for the goal they have to achieve. Usually there are two to three sharper. Plant: Plan is a person with high IQ. Plans are more related to major issues. Plant takes approaches to team functioning and problems. Resource Investigator: Resource investigator is a person who is always busy because he is in search of opportunities and develops plans. They are usually very social people. They usually work outside the group. Company worker/implementer: Company worker works for the team in practical way. They work of the task with is given to them and implementer are those who figure prominently in position of responsibility in large organization. Monitor / evaluator: monitor or evaluator is a person who sees the work of the people. Monitor evaluators contribute particularly at times of crucial decision making because they are capable of evaluating competing proposals. West. M (1994) Team worker: Team worker are whose people with are working in teams. The keep the spirit of the up and allow members to contribute freely. They have skill of listening, coping. Completer/finisher: They made steady effort and they work consistently. They give attention to the details. They check work in the end that whether its completed correctly or not. Specialist: Specialist is a person who provides knowledge and techniques which are rarely supplied. They are master of their field.
1.1 List legislation relating to general health and safety in a social care setting. Health & Safety at Work Act The Management of Health & Safety Work Regulations Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSHH) Manual Handling Operations Regulations The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR) Personal Protective equipment regulations see more:explain why medication must only be handled following specialist training 1.2 Describe the main points of health and safety polices and procedures. Some of the main points of health and safety are as follows; control measures for hazards the arrangements for reporting accidents or health problems the arrangements for first aid, fire and emergencies who the key person is for health and safety matters how health and safety is communicated in the workplace the arrangements to protect others 1.3 Outline the main health and safety responsibilities of: The social care worker Social care workers are responsible for a lot when it comes to health and safety this includes, to take reasonable care for their own and othersâ€™ health and safety, they are to report to employer any potential and actual hazards and risks, they must take part in health and safety training and they need to understand and comply with health and safety instructions and procedures The employer or manager The employer and managers must provide a safe place of work, it is their job to assess risks and take action to reduce them, they must provide information, instruction, training and supervision, they must provide safety and warnings signs when necessary and they must provide adequate welfare and first aid facilities Individuals Individuals (service user) must try to understand and comply with health and safety instructions and procedures and they must take responsibility for their own and otherâ€™s health and safety. 1.4 Identify tasks relating to health and safety that should only be carried out with special training. Administration of medicines by any method other than by mouth or external application. Moving and handling using a mechanical device First aid Emergency procedures 1.5 Describe how to access additional support and information relating to health and safety. There are many ways to access different sorts of support and information in relation to the health and safety if it is needed. You could seek additional support and information by talking to the manager within the home or you could talk to your supervisor. You could discuss these matters with more experienced work colleagues who could give you extra information on health and safety. Outside organisations will also help with understanding of the correct to adhere to the rules. Outcome 2 Understand the use of risk assessments in relation to health and safety. 2.1 Define what is meant by â€˜Hazard and riskâ€™ A Hazard is a potential source of harm or adverse health effect on a person or persons. A risk is the chance or probability that a person will be harmed or experience an adverse health effect if exposed to a hazard 2.2 Describe how to use a health and safety risk assessments Health and Safety risk assessments are used for the following, Identifying risks, potential impact of risk, likelihood of occurrence, proposing precautionary measures, reducing risk and costs, complying with legal requirements and policies and procedures of organisation. 2.3 Explain how and when to report potential health and safety risks that have been identified There are a few ways to report a potential health and safety risk and also certain procedures which must be followed such as, you should continuously be checking for risks and hazards in your work place, if a risk or hazard is found you must report to your senior member of staff immediately and make a written report of the risk or hazard as soon as possible, you must also alert anybody who could be in danger and do what you can to assist them. 2.4 Describe how risk assessment can help address dilemmas between an individualâ€™s rights and health and safety concern You can address dilemmas between an individualâ€™s rights and health and safety concerns by Drawing upon legislation/ policies and procedures to justify precedence of health and safety concerns, by demonstrating that rights and health and safety requirements are reconciled, ensuring individuals are aware of risks to help them with decision-making and ensuring individuals understand that certain requirements are mandatory. Outcome 3 understand procedures for responding to accidents and sudden illness. 3.1 Describe different types of accident and sudden illness that may occur in a social care setting. Accidents: Slips, Trips, Falls, Burns, Choking, misuse of equipment, etcâ€¦ Illnesses: strokes, Cardiac arrest, food poisoning, Allergies, influenza, flues/colds, bugs, asthma, seizures, convulsions, fainting. 3.2 Outline the procedures to be followed if an accident or sudden illness should occur. If an accident or sudden illness should occur you must first inform your senior member of staff by either raising the alarm by use of emergency alarm system or go and find them immediately, remain calm and explain the situation, ensure safety of all involved, assessing situation, provide assistance/ administering first aid as required and within limits of training, completing accident reports ans incident reports, inform Health and Safety Executive etc. in accordance with policies and procedures of organisation. 3.3Explain why it is important for emergency first aid tasks only to be carried out by qualified first aiders. When an emergency occurs and first aid is required it is always important for a qualified first aider to carry out any first aid required there are many reasons for this, the most important is that if a non qualified person try s to give first aid they may cause more damage or injury to the individual, it is also against policies and procedures of organisations and health and safety legislations. Outcome 4 . Know how to reduce the spread of infection. 4.1 List routes by which an infection can get into the body Routes by which an infection can. Respiratory (airborne infections breathed in) Digestive (within foods/ drinks), Blood circulation (via broken skin/ wounds), Body fluids (sexually transmitted diseases, cross contamination, poor hygiene). 4.2 Describe ways in which own health or hygiene might pose a risk to an individual or to others at work. Own health or hygiene might pose a risk to individuals or others at work by causing infections, causing illness or causing fatalities, this can be prevented by washing hands thoroughly before preparing food and after going to the toilet, covering mouth/ turning away when coughing, applying/ replacing old plasters, disposing of used tissues, taking sick leave if ill etc. 4.3 Explain the most thorough method for hand washing Method for hand washing. Hands must be washed thoroughly, after every contact with potential source of contamination/ before food preparation etc.; including: wetting hands with warm water, applying soap bar/ liquid, lathering, scrubbing, rinsing, drying with air dryer/ paper towel; ensuring that all areas of the hand are washed including the back of the hand, between fingers and nail areas. 4.4 Describe when to use different types of personal protective equipment. Different types of personal protective equipment is to be used at different times for different activities these include, cooking/ preparing food, handling waste, providing personal care, cleaning equipment, any activities posing hygiene/ safety risks etc. the types of protective clothing that can be used are, gloves, masks, aprons, hair nets and sometimes protective jackets. Outcome 5 Know how to move and handle equipment and other objects safely 5.1 Identify legislation that relates to moving and handling LegislationÂ relevant to moving and handling The Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 (HASAW/ HSW) The Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 (MHOR) you can find up-to-date policies from the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) website/ National Archives website. 5.2 List principles for safe moving and handling There are many principles for safe moving and handling they are put in place to ensure the safety or yourself and others they are as follows: Only move/ handle when necessary assess the potential risks take steps to reduce the risks request support report any difficulties/ hazards use alternative methods adhere to policies and procedures of organisation agreed ways of working and legislation. 5.3 Explain why it is important for moving and handling tasks to be carried out following specialist training Specialist training is given for moving and handling tasks for many reasons, with the correct training you can reduce the risk of harm or injury to yourself or others, reduce the risk of damaging equipment, safe guard own and others health and safety, you will also be told all policies and procedures and agreed ways of working practises, it also promotes good practise to collegues. Outcome 6 Understand the principles of assisting and moving an individual 6.1 Explain why it is important to have specialist training before assisting and moving an individual It is important to have specialist training because it helps you become aware of many things such as, understanding the needs and preferences of individuals, meeting the needs and preferences of individuals, it enables you to move individuals safely and correctly, it reduces the risk of harm or discomfort, ensures correct procedures are practised, it also helps you to know how to fill in a care plan properly and what specific areas need to be covered. 6.2 Explain the importance of following an individualâ€™s care plan and fully engaging with them when assisting and moving A care plan is a document where day-to-day requirements and preferences for care and support details. Following a care plan helps you to understand and meet the individuals needs and preferences, it helps you to move and assist the individual in the correct way, it allows you to minimize injury to individuals and your self and also ensures you move an individual in a comfortable and supporting way, by using there care plan and discussing with the individual you are allowing active participation for the individual. Outcome 7 Know how to handle hazardous substances 7.1 Identify hazardous substances that may be found in the social care setting cleaning products clinical waste bodily fluids/ waste medication used needles used dressings solvents, disinfectants 7.2 Describe safe practices for â€¢ storing hazardous substances keep hazardous substances stored in correct and labelled containers only keep hazardous substances under correct conditions as per instructions keep hazardous substances in a secure area where no one with out the right training can get hold of them. â€¢ using hazardous substances always read instructions on label before using be careful not to mix substances together incorrectly you should only use substances if trained to do so using PPE as instructed (personal protective equipment) reporting any difficulties immediately â€¢ disposing of hazardous substances under correct conditions as per instructions by following disposal workplace procedure Outcome 8 Know environmental safety procedures in the social care setting 8.1 Outline procedures to be followed in the social care setting to prevent â€¢ fire no smoking not having fire doors propped open checking appliances are turned off checking plugs are switched off following a procedure check-list â€¢ gas leak checking appliances are turned off e.g. cooker, fire â€¢ floods being aware of how to turn off main water supply ensuring taps are turned off after use e.g. bath, sink â€¢ intruding being vigilant of security of building i.e. doors, windows locking doors and windows not giving out key codes to others following a procedure check-list â€¢ security breach being vigilant of security of building i.e. doors, windows reporting any concerns following a procedure check-list 8.2 Outline procedures to be followed in the social care setting in the event of â€¢ fire raise the alarm dial 999 or inform health and safety officer/manager immediately go to fire assembly point move self and others away from danger area if safe to do â€¢ gas leak dial 999 or inform health and safety officer/manager immediately do not turn any switches on/off go to assembly point move self and others away from building immediately record incident â€¢ floods turn off main water supply dial 999 or inform health and safety officer/manager immediately do not turn any switches on/off go to assembly point move self and others away from building immediately record incident â€¢ intruding dial 999 or inform health and safety officer/manager immediately move self and others to a safe area if possible record incident â€¢ security breach dial 999 or inform health and safety officer/manager immediately move self and others away from building immediately record incident Outcome 9 Know how to manage stress 9.1 Identify common signs and indicators of stress. There are many signs and indicators of stress these are as follows: Feeling more tearful and sensitive loss of motivation feeling more tired and lethargic changes in sleeping pattern changes in eating habits Becoming easily agitated Avoiding others 9.2 Identify circumstances that tend to trigger own stress increased demands from others changes in working practices or new working practices changes in team members relationships/divorces unexpected changes i.e. financial, personal, work Bereavements money problems health issues Family problems 9.3 Describe ways to manage stress Stress management starts with identifying the sources of stress in your life. This isnâ€™t as easy as it sounds. Your true sources of stress arenâ€™t always obvious, and itâ€™s all too easy to overlook your own stress-inducing thoughts. There are many ways of dealing with stress and overcoming your obstacles: taking time out for yourself talking through how you feel with your line manager attending any stress management courses available engaging in relaxing activities whilst away from work Exercise getting around 8 hours sleep a night sharing your concerns with others Outcome 10 Understand procedures regarding handaling medication. 10.1 Describe the main points of agreed procedures about handling medication When it comes to handling medication in a social care setting it is important that you do so with competence, handling medication is not something to be messed around with, you must be accountable, it is up to you to completeÂ orders and make sure they are sent of properly, ensuring that the medication is stored correctly, use-by date checks, disposal and recording all the above as required; adhering to policies and procedures of organisation and legislation. 10.2 Identify who is responsible for medication in a social care setting trained worker (normally must have a level 3 in health and social care or over) designated person individual when self medicating 10.3 Explain why medication must only be handled following specialist training Medication must only be administrated by a qualified member of staff as if not administrated properly there could be risk of injury or illness, it reduces risk of mistake, avoids unnecessary harm, follows legislative requirements. Outcome 11 Understand how to handle and store food safely. 11.1 Identify food safety standards relevant to a social care setting The food safety act 1990 The General Food Regulations 2004 The Food Hygiene (England) Regulations 2006 The Food Labelling Regulations 1996 Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 (lays down the general principles and requirements of food law, establishing the European Food Safety Authority and laying down procedures in matters of food safety) 11.2 Explain how to: â€¢ store food â€¢ maximise hygiene when handling food â€¢ dispose of food Make sure containers are sealed correctly, if a product is to be refrigerated/frozen make sure it is done so asap, checking expiry dates, cooling down/ reheating has to be done to correct temperatures else you could cause illness, personal cleanliness is important, keeping clean surfaces, separate utensils for meats raw/ cooked, prompt removal of waste, cleaning spillages thoroughly, use of personal protective equipment, covering injuries, not working when ill, reporting contamination, accidents and pests. 11.3 Identify common hazards when handling and storing food Exceeding expiry dates incorrect thawing/ cooking time cross contamination allergic reactions dangerous use of utensils hot items and cookers leaving food exposed